Apr 30, 2020

Colombia is a country recognized as a megadiverse territory where complexity, fragility and biological diversity are interwoven with a dynamic and complex historic, social, economic and political context. This influences ecosystems in that they are faced with at least 5 major drivers of loss of biodiversity, as follows (Center for Sustainable Development Goals for Latin America, 2019):

  • Land use change: consists of the transformation of natural ecosystems by agriculture, deforestation and urbanization. 40% of the country’s surface has undergone a severe transformation.
  • Direct overexploitation of species: it is the depletion of wild fauna and flora to use it as a natural resource, in fisheries, forest use, and collection of wild products.
  • Biological invasions: These invasions are produced by the introduction of wild or domesticated species in spaces outside their original distribution. They produce devastating effects on islands and fragile ecosystems, and threaten to homogenize the world’s flora and fauna.
  • Contamination of waters and soils: it occurs by the discharge of polluting substances, or substances that alter the natural conditions of the ecosystems; they can generate local and regional impacts on biodiversity, and if left unchecked will contribute to the global collapse of populations and species.
  • Climate change: the stresses of the climate on ecological systems are already observed, with the change in the distribution or integrity of populations of fauna and flora. Should it continue, climate change could become the main driver of biodiversity loss, as it affects the other direct drivers.

In order to minimize these impacts, the company carries out biodiversity and ecosystem service management processes aimed at generating the least amount and magnitude of residual impacts, based on the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy.

  • Biodiversity values
  • Estimated impact
  • Prevention
  • Minimization
  • Net Positive Impact
  • Compensation
  • Additional conservation actions
  • Residual Impact
  • Without net loss

This hierarchy refers to the sequence of measures designed to manage the negative impacts of a project, work or activity, in order to avoid a net loss of biodiversity. It should be applied for decision-making in the planning and design stages.

Ecopetrol’s Biodiversity Strategy

The biodiversity strategy is made up of two axes: i) prevention and mitigation of impacts and ii) implementation of nature-based solutions (NBS), which allow us to respond to societal challenges such as climate change, management of biodiversity and water resources, food security or disaster risk, among others, seeking the sustainability of the territories in which we operate. This strategy mainly contributes to Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs 1, 6, 7, 12, 13 and 15.




The main objectives of the Biodiversity strategy are as follows:



Goals to 2023

Prevent and mitigate impacts on biodiversity

Have updated biodiversity information for decision-making and resilience analysis.

  • 780,000 has with baseline update in the Magdalena Medio Valley and the Orinoco region.
  • 600 camera traps monitoring biodiversity in the Magdalena Medio Valley and the Orinoco region.
  • 20 natural springs characterized in microorganisms to identify native species with bioremediation potential (Metabarcoding).
  • Information on biodiversity reported in the Colombian Biodiversity Information System - SIB and in the Colombian Environmental Information System - SIAC.

Incorporate the mitigation hierarchy in the planning and implementation of projects and operations.

  • Continue with the incorporation of ecosystem services in project planning and operations.
  • A tool for the analysis of socio- ecological resilience.
  • Net gain in biodiversity in projects and operations.
  • 200 forced investment plans of no less than 1% and environmental compensation in execution.

Implement Nature-Based Solutions

Carry out interventions at the landscape scale in priority areas.

  • 20,000 has conserved and/or restored in the nuclei and prioritized landscapes.
  • Maintain 15 wild species conserved in 3 landscapes (Magdalena Medio, Llanos Orientales and Putumayo).
  • 10 Conservation incentives designed and implemented.

Conserve biodiversity and its ecosystem services

  • 1 Network of Ecoreserves of the Corporate Group made up of at least 20 areas and 11,000 hectares.
  • 10 Toolbox for Nature-Based Solutions (NBS)
  • 6 Million trees planted by the Ecopetrol Corporate Group (EG).

Prevention and mitigation of impacts on biodiversity

  1. Have updated biodiversity information for decision-making and resilience analysis:

    Its purpose is to identify, characterize and monitor the areas of current and potential interventions of the Company in relation to its biodiversity and ecosystem services. This will be done by updating the base information in biodiversity and the analysis of the resilience of the areas of interest. Monitoring techniques such as camera traps, metabarcoding, soundscapes, community monitoring, among others, are incorporated, generating information for public consultation and free access that will feed the Information System on Biodiversity of Colombia (SiB) and the Environmental Information System of Colombia. Colombia (SIAC).
  2. Incorporate the mitigation hierarchy in planning and implementation of projects and operations:

    Its purpose is to incorporate the mitigation hierarchy from the planning of projects and operations to prevent, avoid and mitigate impacts on biodiversity and compensate for residual impacts, thus generating a positive net impact (gain in biodiversity).

    In this sense, Ecopetrol declares that it does not have – nor does Ecopetrol plan to intervene with – exploration, production or refining activities in areas of great value for biodiversity classified according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature - IUCN in categories I to IV.

    Similarly, Ecopetrol does not have projects or operations in areas declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, nor does it plan to intervene in these types of areas.

Areas of great value for biodiversity, IUCN categories I to IV and World Heritage Areas and Ecopetrol operations. (Source: Ecopetrol, Environmental Management and Relationship)

Implementation of nature-based solutions:

  1. Carrying out interventions at the landscape level in priority areas:

    It consists of designing and implementing conservation, restoration and sustainable use actions in natural or transformed ecosystems with a view to generating an impact at the landscape level and providing well-being to communities through the diversification of local economies and the strengthening of their capacities, generating direct results in the conservation, recovery and resilience of ecosystems.
  2. Conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services:

    This strategy tends to maintain biodiversity and ecosystemic services in strategic areas, all the while improving the livelihoods of local communities. Synergies are sought between nature, society and the economy, to respond to challenges such as climate change, water resource management and biodiversity, for which work is being done on the consolidation of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), instead of relying on conventional solutions. Information related to Natural Climate Solutions (NCS), which are part of the NBS, are addressed in the chapter on climate action.

    The goals above seek to contribute to the comprehensive management of biodiversity and to the maintenance of the provision of ecosystem services such as the regulation of flows of water sources, food provision, biodiversity conservation, CO2 fixation, adaptation and reduction of vulnerability of regions to climate change, among others. The following table shows the evolution of the goals in recent years.


Ecopetrol’s Achievements in Biodiversity Management (2017 – 2020).


Criterion Unit 2017 2018 2019 2020 Accumulated to 2020
Trees planted or given to communities, environmental authorities or local governments Number of trees 2.000 49.638 537.954 650.453 1.240.045
Established nurseries and Number of nurseries * 5 6 8 22 22
Seedlings produced in nurseries Number of seedlings 31.041 28.820 9.000 90.724 159.585
Areas sown or in restoration processes Hectares 70 49 93 4.436 4.648
Number of protected water sources Number - - 2 92 94
Conservation agreements signed Agreements 10 9 22 56 97
Hectares 1.348 11.659 30.251 36.125 79.383
Threatened wild species in conservation processes Number of Species * 10 10 15 15 15
Area in silvopastoral systems Hectares 18 - 100 - 118
Area in agroforestry systems Hectares 324* - 181 204 709
Eco-efficient stoves established Number 7.820* 235 72 - 8.127
Eco-reserve Network Eco-reserve * 1 1 2 6 6
Hectares 128 128 414 11.906 12.576
Protected areas declared under any conservation mandate  Number of Areas 11 4 7 14 36
Hectares 151 14.322 5.658 17.767 37.898

Information from the 2017 Sustainability Report, Strategic Regional Environmental Investment (IARE)

* The accumulated data corresponds only to the last year, as it includes the initiatives of previous years.

The following graphs show the positive trend of the results.

Source: Ecopetrol, Vice Presidency of HSE


The trend of the results and the new proposed goals show the commitment of Ecopetrol S.A. with the comprehensive management of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Strategic alliances for the management of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Regarding voluntary initiatives, During 2020, Ecopetrol continued with the execution of the agreements with the Wildlife Conservation Society (Wildlife Project), the Alexander von Humboldt Institute (Fribas Project), The Nature Conservancy and the National Association of Businessmen of Colombia (ANDI), to protect various habitats in the Magdalena Medio Valley, the Eastern Plains and the Andean-Amazonian Piedmont, areas of interest given that the company’s exploration and production activities are carried out there. Table 1. Ecopetrol’s Achievements in Biodiversity Management (2017 – 2020) includes the main achievements in biodiversity management.


Wildlife Project

The Wildlife Project (PVS) is an initiative for the conservation of biodiversity funded by Ecopetrol that began in 2013, with the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) as an ally, with the support of the Mario Santo Domingo Foundation, the Action Fund for the Environment and Childhood, and local partner organizations that lead actions in the work landscapes.

In 2020, the initiative was recognized by the Ministry of Mines and Energy MME with the first place in the program “Significant Experiences in Environmental and Social Management of the Mining and Energy Sector”.


Main advances and achievements of the Wildlife Project


1. Landscape and other species are favored by conservation agreements


Data have been collected in the areas under conservation agreements that show positive impacts on the prioritized species and other species, thanks to the increase of territory for their mobilization, reducing the pressures of extinction.

2. Some species are increasing their populations in landscapes

The degree of occupation of the prioritized species in each landscape was evaluated, showing the increase in the use of territory and its populations, based on the conservation actions implemented.


Species like turtles are maintaining their populations and even showing signs of recovery.

3. Deforestation is lower in the intervention landscape than in the surrounding landscapes.


There is evidence of a positive trend in avoided deforestation, presenting a lower percentage of deforestation in the intervention landscapes as compared to similar areas outside the project.

4. Species are using biological corridors


From the monitoring data recorded with camera traps, it is evident that there is a use of biological corridors that have been promoted through the initiative, allowing the mobility of different species between forest fragments.

Source: Ecopetrol Wildlife Project - WCS.


Fibers Project

As part of the agreement between Ecopetrol and the Alexander von Humboldt Institute, the “Ecoreservas” – Eco-reserves Network has been consolidated as part of the agreement between Ecopetrol and the Alexander von Humboldt Institute, which corresponds to a Complementary Conservation Strategy (CCS) in which the properties that have a high contribution to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services were identified.

Eco-reserves are geographically defined areas owned by Ecopetrol and intended in part or entirely to the conservation of biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services, without limiting their productive and exploratory vocation.

Below are the benefits of eco-reserves:

  • Passive restoration.
  • Strengthening ecosystem services.
  • Possible partnerships with local, national and international actors.
  • Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
  • Applied science, technology and innovation research.
  • Participatory governance scheme and local opportunities based on bioeconomy, nature-based solutions and green businesses.

The Network is made up of Ecopetrol properties that make up the eco-reserves. 6 pilot areas were included – i.e. more than 11,000 has – during 2020.




he has

La Tribuna and two adjoining properties



It encompasses CPF Cupiagua



Agro-energy Sustainability Area ASA



La Esperanza property (Barranca Refinery)



Rubiales Field



Island IV Puerto Wilches- Cantagallo







The future goals of this Eco-reserves plan include the establishment of 50 Eco-reserves throughout the Ecopetrol Corporate Group.

Ecopetrol Group’s Goals

Short Term (2021)

Medium Term (2023)

Long Term (2030)

15 eco-reserves

20 eco-reserves

50 eco-reserves


Main advances and achievements of the Agreement with the Alexander von Humboldt Institute.

ECP - Alexander von Humboldt Institute Agreement

Agreement to socially and ecologically plan areas of interest to Ecopetrol, as a contribution to a sustainable transition of the hydrocarbon sector in Colombia.


  • Methodology to identify connectivity corridors between properties selected and others identified with potential for designation as ECC.
  • Evaluation of the socio- ecological resilience in the areas of interest of ECOPETROL in the Magdalena Medio and the Orinoco Region and the identification of relationships between the social and ecological elements that make up the nuclei of interest analyzed.
  • Landscape heterogeneity analysis and selection of the implementation areas of the monitoring strategy in Orinoco Region and Magdalena Medio.
  • First season of the largest passive monitoring process that has been carried out in Colombia through the installation of 599 camera traps.
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis for the conservation of biodiversity in the landscapes of interest defined in the Piedemonte - Casanare area.
  • Results of the first expedition of Sustainable Uses of Biodiversity, which includes: list of species identified with potential for use, set of biological records, samples of botanical specimens and tissues collected and fed into the collections of the Institute, and inputs from the workshop with the community on the use and exploitation that they currently give to the species identified.
  • Permit for Access to Genetic Resources granted by the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development for genomics process sampling and their subsequent analysis.
  • First Genomics expedition to La Tribuna Ecoreserve, through which the samples planned were obtained and are being analyzed in specialized laboratories.
  • International workshop on sampling and analysis of metabarcoding.
  • Design of the syllabus for the virtual Diploma Course in Biodiversity Conservation and Management.
  • Communications Strategy designed and being implemented through the microsite (16,718 visits), social networks (Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter), printing of communications material, definition of formats, graphic pieces (156 pieces, 17 videos, literary fragments), among others.
  • Great Book of the Orinoco Region published.

Source: Ecopetrol, Vice Presidency of HSE


Agreement with ANDI

Ecopetrol S.A. is part of the initiative “Biodiversity and Development for Putumayo” led by ANDI, which seeks to contribute to the comprehensive management of the country’s biodiversity through collective work, investment and compensation schemes between companies, institutions and local groups, with a territorial development approach.

Main advances and achievements of the Agreement with ANDI

ECP - ANDI Agreement


  • An award was received from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN - WCPA), recognizing the initiative as a good practice in Latin America and the Caribbean, for integrating actors with a common territorial purpose and increasing the contribution of the private sector in the management of biodiversity.
  • The initiative joins the ANDI - SIB Colombia alliance for open data on biodiversity from the business sector, managing to link 23 companies and nearly 200,000 biological records for the country in 2020.
  • Holding national and regional meetings around the contribution of the business sector in the conservation of wildlife, landscape connectivity and monitoring of biodiversity, reaching 385 attendees with the participation of 17 agencies.
  • Promoting the formulation of the first investment and compensation portfolio in biodiversity for Putumayo for 1 million hectares, integrating Corpoamazonia, ANLA and the Vision Amazonia Program.
  • A 100% virtual regional event was held in December 2020 within the framework of the International Film and Environment Festival - FICAMAZONIA, with an academic agenda around business strategies for conservation and sustainable use in Putumayo, the Andes-Amazon Landscape, under a digital experience, which made it possible to connect about 1,067 attendees from various parts of the world – especially from Colombia and Latin America through the 360 format, with local broadcasting in the municipality of Orito.

Source: Ecopetrol, Vice Presidency of HSE


Operations in areas of great value for biodiversity

As a result of the incorporation of biodiversity in the planning of projects and operations, Ecopetrol does not have operations in areas of great value for biodiversity in categories I to IV of IUCN protected areas or in areas declared World Heritage by UNESCO.

In its direct operation, Ecopetrol has four production facilities in two Regional Districts of Integrated Management (DRMI1) located in the department of Santander. These DRMIs were declared between the years 2005 and 2006, after the start of the industry operations in the area, which took place in 1951. On average, the percentage of the area of operation in the zones of exclusion from the areas of management is 9.12%, with the highest values found in DRMI San Silvestre (in the municipality of Barrancabermeja).


Production operations within protected areas.

Regional District of Integrated Management


Declara-tion Year

AP Area *


Ecopetrol project

Size of the operation (Km2)

Year of beginning of Ecopetrol’s operation

Type of Operation

Percentage of the operation within the PA (%)

Percentage of the operation in the PA’s exclusion zones (%)

San Silvestre
























Serranía de los Yariguíes























* AP: Protected Area

Source: Ecopetrol, Vice Presidency of HSE


Significant impacts on biodiversity

The nature of the significant impacts on biodiversity that Ecopetrol made during 2020 is associated with the transformation of the habitat. A total of 359 hectares were intervened and forest use comprised 1,657 m3. These interventions are subject to environmental compensation through the implementation of conservation or restoration projects through the actions, modes, mechanisms, quantities and forms enabled in each environmental management instrument.


Main impacts


Nature of the impacts Introduction of invasive species Species reduction Habitat transformation Changes in ecological processes Contamination Construction or use of transport infrastructure Species Affected  Extension of impacted areas (ha) Duration of impacts Reversibility or Irreversibility of Impacts 
Permit for forest use and canal occupation for the construction of flow lines NO NO YES NO NO NO FLORA 0,27 Over 5 years Reversible
Permit for forest use and maintenance of power lines NO NO YES NO NO NO FLORA 2,53 Over 5 years Reversible
Single forest harvesting permit for the electrical lines of the Castilla electrical reliability module NO NO YES NO NO NO FLORA 0,01 Over 5 years Reversible
Drilling of Study Wells - Campo Tibú NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 1,73 Over 5 years Reversible
Gas Transfer Line - Campo Sardinata Section 3 NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 1,2 Over 5 years Reversible
Peripherals – Zulia River Field NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 0,9 Over 5 years Reversible
Tibú Project - T-42A Drilling Cluster Construction NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 0,93 Over 5 years Reversible
Naphtha exploratory drilling area NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 6,8 Over 5 years Reversible
Cantagallo exploratory drilling area - Flamencos well NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 2,24 Over 5 years Reversible
Project DLP-Llanito land use change - PMAI Mares NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 14,38 Over 5 years Reversible
La Cira Infantas project - land use change - PMAI Mares NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 282,84 Over 5 years Reversible
Casabe-Peñas Blancas project - land use change - PMA Casabe-Peñas Blancas NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 3,44 Over 5 years Reversible
Yarigui-Cantagallo Project - land use change - PMA Yarigui-Cantagallo NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 13,61 Over 5 years Reversible
Project Tisquirama -San Roque, Bonanza and Province - land use change - PMAI Province  NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 27,85 Over 5 years Reversible
Casabe-Peñas Blancas project-forest use NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 206,884m³ Over 5 years Reversible
DLP-Llanito-forest use project NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 504,184 m³ Over 5 years Reversible
La Cira Infantas project-forest use NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 874,748 m³ Over 5 years Reversible
Project Tisquirama -San Roque-forest use NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 7,629 m³ Over 5 years Reversible
ProvinciaProject -forest use NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 64,264 m³ Over 5 years Reversible
Use of gas from the GDH (Cebu to DK’s Battery) NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 0,1 Over 5 years Reversible
Use of isolated trees GDH batteries NO NO YES NO NO YES FLORA 0,1 Over 5 years Reversible
Rubiales Production Field NO NO NO NO YES NO NO 0,1638 Less than 1 year Reversible

Source: Ecopetrol, Vice Presidency of HSE


Spill contingencies.

6.8 km of water bodies and 0.1365 km2 of soil were affected in 2020. These impacts are reversible in nature. In each of the cases reported, Ecopetrol activated the Emergency and Contingency Plan filed with the National Environmental Licensing Authority (ANLA), implementing the Incident Command System and following the procedures and protocols established for the care of environmental emergencies.


Environmental Incidents Contamination Resources Affected Affected species  Reversibility or Irreversibility of Impacts
Water (km) Soil (km2)
Orinoco: Environmental Incidents
Naphtha Leak Incident by 6” Line from cluster 21 to cluster 15 YES 0,8 0,000518 FLORA AND FAUNA Reversible
Incident due to loss of containment in the form of a spray at TEA-ECH YES   0,11 FLORA Reversible
Naphtha leak fluid leak in the 8” line of the interconnection A - southern area of the Chichimene field YES 2,5 0,000502 FLORA AND FAUNA Reversible
Incident due to a gasoline leak in an 8” line from cluster 5 to cluster 38 - Chichimene field YES 3,2 0,00045 FLORA AND FAUNA Reversible
Naphtha spill incident from the Apiay-Chichimene naphtaduct line, Chichimene field YES 0,305 0,025 FLORA AND FAUNA Reversible
Hydrocarbon spill due to leak in seal packing in tank car in transfer activity with Frac Tank YES   0,000052 FLORA Reversible
  Total 6,8 0,1365    


Habitats protected or restored

During the last five years ( from January 2016 to December 2020) Ecopetrol has carried out protection or restoration of 5,452 hectares (has) based on actions to comply with its environmental obligations, of which 324 correspond to conservation projects, 1,359 has under restoration and 3,769 has to combined measures projects. These processes have been implemented through conservation agreement schemes, land purchase, protective reforestation, ecological restoration and isolation of areas for conservation, among others.

The methodology implemented for the restoration of habitats corresponds to the establishment of protective reforestation in water source protection areas located in the area of direct influence of the projects, in order to compensate for changes in land use and atmospheric emissions of the operation.

Additionally, Ecopetrol and its Corporate Group have publicly declared their commitment to the conservation of strategic ecosystems in the country with the generation of a network of Eco - reserves, which began with La Tribuna in the department of Huila 26 years ago (https: //nuevoportal.ecopetrol.com.co/latribuna). Since 2020, these Eco-reserves have added five areas in the departments of Santander, Meta and Casanare. The Ecoreservas (Eco-reserves) Network is proposed as a supplementary conservation strategy in addition to those already established by the State, understanding Ecoreservas (Eco-reserves) as: A geographically delimited area owned by Ecopetrol which is voluntarily destined in part or completely to the conservation of biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services, without hindering its productive and exploratory vocation.

Finally, Ecopetrol joined the National Government’s # SembrarNosUne (Planting Brings Us Together) initiative that seeks to restore degraded ecosystems by planting 180 million trees throughout the Colombian territory. The Corporate Group committed to the planting and delivery of 6 million trees between 2018 and 2022 (https://idm.presidencia.gov.co/prensa/ecopetrol-y-epm-sembraran-18-millones-de-arboles-en-el-proposito-nacional-201112; https://www.larepublica.co/economia/ecopetrol-se-une-a-la-iniciativa-del-gobierno-sembrar-nos-une-con-seis-millones-de-arboles-3072953).



Progress in the recovery of the Lisama 158 Well contingency

In order to continue with the recovery of the Lisama 158 well contingency which took place in 2018, Ecopetrol acquired properties for 4.13 hectares with the purpose of contributing to the environmental recovery process of the affected area.

The areas affected were assigned to rehabilitation activities for riparian vegetation and flood plains associated with the bodies of water of the Lisama stream, La Muerte channel and its contributors, and voluntary conservation agreements were formalized with private owners.


Contingency recovery actions at Lisama Well 158


Habitats protected or restored

Area Protected / Restored



Protection / restoration scheme

Status as of the reporting date

Restoration measure success approved by third party

Lisama Field – Lisama 158 contingency (Water Corridor)



Barrancabermeja, Santander

Conservation agreements



Lisama Field – Lisama 158 contingency



Santo Tomás II property, Barrancabermeja, Santander

Property acquisition


Does not apply

Lisama Field – Lisama 158 contingency (Zone one)



Santo Tomás II property, Barrancabermeja, Santander

Property acquisition



Lisama Field – Lisama 158 contingency (Ground Zero)



Santo Tomás II property, Barrancabermeja, Santander

Property acquisition



Source: Ecopetrol, Environmental Management and Relationship

Publications related to Biodiversity

Ecopetrol and Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC) presented seven books and a scientific research handbook with the results of several biodiversity studies carried out in 2020 in Cesar, Magdalena, Santander, Casanare and Boyacá where the Company (through its subsidiary Cenit) has hydrocarbon transportation operations. The publications are listed below, and are available at:

https://www.ecopetrol.com.co/wps/portal/Home/es/ResponsabilidadEtiqueta/Medio%20ambiente/biodiversidad/investigacion-hallazgos-biodiversidad/ :

  1. “Biology of amphibians and reptiles in the tropical dry forest of northern Colombia”.
  2. “Flora of Aguazul: A sample of diversity”.
  3. “Revealing hidden treasures: flora and fauna on the eastern flank of the Serranía de los Yariguíes”.
  4. “Walking among the Yariguíes footprints: people and science in the early management of the ecological restoration of the protected area”.
  5. “Life in a fragment of forest on the rocks: a sample of Andean diversity in Bolívar, Santander”.
  6. “Of plants and animals: a sample of the diversity of the DRMI Rabanal (Boyacá) and the foothills of the plains Sabanalarga (Casanare)”.
  7. “Restoration of mountain ecosystems: culture and ecology from the highlands and the eastern plains piedmont”.
  8. Handbook: “Tapaculo and Morrocoy turtles: Friends to get to know and keep”.


Within the framework of the Fibras Agreement with the Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute – and in partnership with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, we supported the publication of the Great Book of the Colombian Orinoco Region with essential information to understand the origin and the dynamics of the socio-ecological dynamics of the territory, its main characteristics and the requirements for its operation.


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